Muslims believe in an after life where we experience a different reality from this life. There is the aspect of judgment, reward, and punishment.
The short answer is that Muslims believe in an after life where we experience a different reality from this life. The Qur’an and Hadith, which are the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, allude to the afterlife with metaphor that include imagery relating to reward and punishment. Understanding the complexity of our current life or reality is an important aspect when questioning the reality of the after life. It is not a simple issue or concept. Studying the Quran and the verses relating to the after life will help you to understand what Muslims believe.
Similar to other faiths, there is the aspect of judgement, reward, and punishment. Islam teaches varying degrees of each. Uniquely, Islam does not teach of indefinite punishment. There will be a time when no one will be left in hell. The concept of heaven and hell alludes to states of mind that are related to nearness or communion with God. Certainly, the Quran relates fire and burning, but it must be understood that the reality of the afterlife is not what we experience here. Our senses will be different, our bodies will be different. The concept of punishment and reward is something we experience in this life and perhaps suggests how it will be experienced in the afterlife.